Introduction to History of America
America is situated in the continent of North America. It is also referred to as the united states of America.
Pre Columbus era (History of America)
The Pre Columbus era is the time before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America. About 3 million native Americans were living in America before the arrival of Europeans. The natives of America were very divergent in their culture and languages from one another. The natives of America were living by hunting deer, buffalos and deer. Some by raising corn and fishing. The Scandinavian people from Europe came to an island of America. They could not settle over there and go back to Europe. Later another group of people from Europe came to live in America. They settle in Roanoke island. They could not settle on the island. No one knows what happens to them, either they left the island by themselves or due to natural disasters.
The actual origin of the history of the united states of America begins with the colonization of Virginia. Virginia is one of the states of the U.S. The 100 women and boys, including John smith from England, came in 1607, they all were adventurers. John smith was a soldier in the English army. He was keen interested in gold. They formed the first-ever town in Virginia, named as Jamestown. Some of them planted tobacco to earn money. Many of the Virginians died of starvation.
Plymouth colony of North America was colonized by pilgrims in 1621. These pilgrims establish a large colony. The main reason of their arrival was to build a developed society. Their mission was not to make money. They formed a society and named it as “a city on a hill” in Massachusetts bay. Roger Williams who was religious tolerate of Massachusetts. He fell in clashes with Massachusetts and left the society. In 1636 Roger Williams started to build a colony in Rhode Island.
These colonies were basically built on the idea of American colonists. They were impressed by the Great Britain colonization system. Colonies were developed in new areas by Dutch, Spanish, Sweden, and Germans. Many of the Americans died of smallpox, due to their living in colonies.
Religious movement “Great Awakening” started in the beginning of the 1770’s. Jonathan Edwards was a religious speaker. He held many sermons for preaching. The most famous of them was “Sinners in the hands of angry Gods”. This sermon has also contributed greatly towards the French revolution.
Till 1733 many colonies were developed in America. In 1754 “seven years’ war” started between England and France. The British won the battle in 1763.
American revolution (1775) History of America
The American colonists were not getting their basic rights by the English government. English government made taxation rules for the American colonists. According to this rule, it was made compulsory for the colonists Americans to pay taxes for war. Americans were not given any representation in the English government and parliament. That’s why American colonists called this as “No taxation without representation”. This became the main reason of unity among the American colonists.
The Boston colonists were also against the English government. The Boston’s fought a war with British soldiers in 1770. Five natives of Boston were killed by the troops. This is also termed as the “Boston Massacre”.
In 1773 the Americans colonists began a protest against English ruler, King George. Then under the orders of King George, English soldiers took control over Boston. This cause the American colonists to form a “Continental Congress”. The leaders of thirteen American colonies unite together in this convention. The prominent names of the convention were Thomas Jefferson, Adam’s Smith and John Jay.
Renowned pamphlet “Common Sense” was written by Thomas Paine in 1776. This pamphlet has rendered a great contribution in American Independence. The pamphlet was based on the concept of American freedom English government.
Americans started a war of “Lexington and Concord” with the British in 1775. The arrival of “U. S declaration of Independence” , a document was based on American freedom. It was declared that Americans cannot live under British rule. All the members of continental congress agreed upon it. This document proved to be a motivator in war. Under the leadership of George Washington, Americans lost many times from the British army.
In 1777 battle of Saratoga was surprising for the British. The British army was defeated badly in this battle. In 1781 America won the war of independence with the help of France and Spain.
Unity of colonies of America (History of America)
First confederation of America was formed by the unity of all thirteen colonies. This was named as “Articles of Confederation”. All the thirteen states were working independently, rather under the regulation of the central government. Shays’s rebellion became the major drawback of Confederation. As taxes were imposed on every person, this causes a sense of fear among farmers. They were unable to pay taxes. Farmers thought that they will be imprisoned for this. Due to such types of reasons the federation failed to last more than six years.
The first constitution of America (History of America)
George Washington, Alexandra Hamilton, James Madison and other important personalities wrote the first constitution in 1787. Under this constitution, the central government was first established in America. The central government was divided into three branches, judicial, legislative and the executive branch. Many of the colonies were against this constitution.
Alexander Hamilton and James Madison wrote many of Federalist papers. These articles were written basically in favor of the constitution. This effort did not prove to be fruit full. To assure basic rights to every citizen bill of rights was, made part of the constitution. This causes the majority of states to agree upon the constitution. One more conflict was every citizen cannot vote for electing the government. The right of the vote was given only to the landlords of colonies. Later many amendments were made in the American constitution. According to these constitutions, every citizen with NIC was given the right to vote.
First President of America
George Washington was elected as the first president of America in 1789. The poor farmers of the country started a campaign against the government. The campaign was termed as “Whisky Rebellion”.
The farmers in this campaign demanded the removal of taxes from all the alcoholic drinks. Many of the important forts of America were under the control of Britain. George Washington passed the “Jay Treaty” in 1795. Trade relations were built with Britain. The basic purpose of this was to get the forts back from Britain.
Second President of America
The first election of America between the two political parties was held in 1796. The opponents in this election were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. John Adam won the elections and became the second president of America. John Adam works a lot for the uplift and expansion of the U.S army.
The third president of America
In the elections of 1800, Thomas Jefferson won the elections and became the third President. In 1803 Thomas bought land from France, termed as “Louisiana purchase”. He stops major trade with England.
War of 1812 History of America
War of 1812 was fought between England and America. James Madison was president during the war. This war results in the end of the Federalist political party. James Monroe introduces a doctrine, named as “Monroe doctrine”. The doctrine was the foreign policy which was made for Europe. This doctrine was made to divert the efforts of Europe, to control America. During this period the “American System” was also introduced. Under this system, a large investment is done in communication, banking and transportation. American system led to the establishment of developed cities. Many canals were made, most prominent of which was “Erie canal”. The mid of 1800s is remarkable in the construction of railroads and telegraph lines in America. This time period is also characterized by religious revivals in America.
Slavery in America
A large number of people in the north and south areas were slaves of landlords. They worked on large plantations without any reward. Northern slaves started a movement against landlords. The movement was intended to end slavery. The people of south region were in favor of slavery.
Religious revival (mid-1800’s)
This period is characterized by religious revivals in America. Many of the religious movements started in America. The prominent of these was Second great awakening, Mormons, holiness movement, temperance movement and abolitionism. The basic purpose of these movements was to change the attitudes of people, to create piece environment within society. The most prominent feature of these was abolition of slavery in America.
Andrew Jackson, 14th president of America worked a lot for the slaves of the South region. Government jobs were allocated among them. Andrew work for the uplift of taxes from southern area.
American-Mexican war (1845)
Texas due to some conflicts left Mexico and joined U.S. Mexico wanted Texas back. Due to these reasons war started between Mexico and America. The Mexicans were defeated by American troops. American troops captured the areas of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Mexico City and Veracruz.
American civil war (History of America)
People of the north and south region started a civil war. The people of the south were in favor of slavery and of the north were against it. Many people were killed during this war. Abraham Lincoln’s first president from the Republican party did a lot to end this conflict. Abraham Lincoln was shot down.
Andrew Johnson succeeded Abraham as president. A large number of buildings, government offices, and industries were established, during his presidency. Three amendments were made in the constitution, which leads to the complete abolition of slavery.
American-Spanish war: (History of America)
America fought a war with Spain in 1898. America defeated Spain. It captured many areas such as the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guantanamo bay. Alaska and Hawaii the largest states of the U.S were purchased by America.
Industrial revolution (History of America)
Large number of industries was built in the start of 19th century. Industrialization reached its peak during this period. But industrialization could not be replaced with agriculture.
Cult of domesticity (1900’s):
This movement proved to be a hindrance in the development of America. According to the cult of domesticity, women were not given any rights in jobs. It was thought that women should only look after the home. This concept later changed by Lucretia Mott.
Theodore Roosevelt (1901) (History of America)
Theodor Roosevelt was elected as president in 1901. Roosevelt tried a lot to take control of Latin America. He started construction of the Panama Canal, which connects the Pacific ocean with Atlantic. America did not develop during his presidency. People were not in his favor, as they thought that the states are becoming poor.
Woodrow Wilson (1912):
Woodrow Wilson was elected as president in 1912. Wilson had struggled a lot for the eradication of taxes. High taxes were imposed by Europe and China, on imported goods. Federal tax system and direct elections of senators were made under 16th and 17th amendments.
World war 1 (History of America)
In 1915 the murder of King Nebuzzchandar was the main reason of world war 1. Europe was divided in to two opposing parties. America was not interested to fight a world war. Germans attack the ship of Americans. As America was involved in supplying war weapons to both parties. German again attack on American ships. This became the main reason of America’s participation in world war 1.
Fig: World war 1
During world war 1 Woodrow Wilson was president of America. Woodrow Wilson wanted to end world war. He formed league of nations (LON), to resolve the matter. World war 1 ended in 1919. America was involved in selling of weapons. This make America most rich country in the world. Millions of Americans were killed by flu pandemic in 1919.
American development (1920-39) History of America
After world war 1 people of America became very rich. Their standard of living has improved to greater extent. The American natives started to buy American cars and home appliances for use.
Ancient American car
During this period natives of south move towards developed cities. They were renowned for the particular type of music, referred to as Jazz music. Due to their arrival in developed cities, that era was also called as “Jazz era”. After 18th amendment in the American constitution, alcohol was completely banned. But native Americans did not obey the rule. This give spark to illegal smuggling of alcohol.
Ku Kluz Klan was originally belonging to south. They were strong enough and again started war. This cause some native American businessmen to leave the country. It greatly damaged labor industry. American government makes “Isolationist” a policy to end the war forever.
Warren G became 29th president of U.S. Warren worked for the progress of the economy. Big businesses were given reliefs on taxes. This was intended to create a friendly business environment within America. There was huge difference of wealth distribution within society. Warren died in 1923.
Warren G was succeeded by Calvin Coolidge in 1923. Calvin’s opinion was similar to Warren. He also believed that the government should not interfere in matters of business. He worked on the policies of Warren. In 1928 Hebert Hoover became president.
Great depression: (History of America)
America face a severe economic crisis in 1929. The main reason of the crisis was the downfall of the stock market in value. That economic crisis was referred to as “Great depression”. Banks were closed due extreme money shortage. About 35% of the population were unemployed. Dustbowl, a heavy storm hit America in 1930. It has contributed more to the economic crisis, as it has greatly damage agriculture. Herbert Hoover has tried his best to overcome these circumstances but failed.
In 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt became president of America. Franklin worked to move economy out of depression. He started “New Deal” to give relief to the public. Many industries were established by Franklin for employment.
Franklin D Roosevelt
Dams and electric lines were established. A lot of other development programs were initiated. This leads to the improvement of the economy. Large number of people were employed under the presidency of Franklin. New deal has decreased great depression.
World war 2: History of America
World war 2 started in 1939. America decided not to fight in war. They began to supply war weapons all over the world. The supply of weapons, make America earn great money. It makes America move out of depression.
In 1939 Japan attack the U.S naval base, Pearl Harbor in 1941. This cause entrance of America in world war 2. America fought ground, air and naval battles with Japan. It has also dropped bombs on Germany. Franklin D. Roosevelt died in 1945.
Harry Truman became president in 1945. America decided to drop two atom bombs on Japan. This results in the end of second world war. American economy recovered a lot during second world war. Large number of women were employed in the weapon industries of America.
Cold war: History of America
Cold war was fought indirectly between Soviet Union and America. These two states were most rich and strapping countries of world. Both countries wanted to capture other areas of world. American and Soviet troops fought in Korean war. Korea was divided into north Korea and south Korea after this war.
America fought a battle with Vietnam. This battle lasted for years. America was defeated, thousands of Americans killed during the war. Cuban missile crisis also adds more to conflicts between America and Soviet Union. This led towards development of bombs in Soviet Union. Cold war greatly damaged the economy of America.
Americans then started “Military industrial complex”. This project was intended to make more money through weapons. American government and business men work in collaboration for production of large-scale weapons. later both the countries compete for production of satellites. Neil Armstrong, first American who step foot on moon.
Water gate scandal cause Richard Nixon to left president office. Later treaties were signed between Soviet Union and America to end war. In 1980 good relations was developed between America and China. Women’s movement was started for the rights of women. The basic purpose of this movement, was to give women equal representation.
Ronald Reagan: History of America
Ronald Reagan was elected as president in 1980. He got maximum votes from 44 states of America. The economic condition of the country was not good. Ronald has taken many supporting initiatives for the uplift of the economy. He established the “Economic recovery tax act 1981”. This proved to be healthy for the economy.
Fig: Ronald Reagan
During his presidency, many Americans were recruited in the army. He was again elected as president in the elections of 1984. He held many meetings to eradicate the cold war. During his second tenure, he was successful in the development of the economy. Ronald Reagan was considered as the most famous American president. Cold war was resolved in 1991. The early 1990’s considered a computer era. Computer and internet were widely used in all the American departments.
Saddam Hussain was the political leader of Iraq. He intended to capture Kuwait. This later became the reason of “Gulf war” between America and Iraq.
In 1992 Bill Clinton hold the office of president. Clinton works were damaging to the economy. He was later removed by the senate.
George W. Bush was elected as president in the elections of 2000’s. Terrorists from Iraq attacked on world trade center in 2001. Due to this attack thousands of Americans died. In response to this American troops invaded Iraq in 2003. The war continued for seventeen years and finally ended in 2020.
George W Bush
Hurricane of 2005 was the strongest hurricane ever to hit united states of America. Some states of America were greatly affected. Bush failed to overcome attack on trade center and damages from hurricane.
Barack Obama was elected as American president in 2008. He served America greatly in the field of banking. Health departments were improved. Tea party movement was started by Obama for uplift of health department.
Donald John Trump:
There was a strong competition in the elections of 2016. The democratic party won the elections and Donald trump was elected as president. Trump work for the complete eradication of terrorism. Tomahawk cruise missile project, the major work of trump is signed by Trump.
Coronavirus (COVID-19): History of America
Pandemic pneumonia is caused by the attack of coronavirus on the respiratory system. America is greatly affected by COVID-19. America is a lockdown. Which is greatly affecting the stick market and industrial sector. The number of patients is increasing day by day. Almost 800 people died every day. It’s become difficult for the government to control situation.