Introduction To The History of Britain
Great Britain had been the part of Europe for centuries. Then, there was a shift in weather from colder to warmer around 15000 hundred years ago. Due to increase melting of ice. This melting of ice isolated the Great Britain in an Iceland about 8000 years ago. The chronological order of its various periods includes Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Ages ( 6000BC – 800BC), Iron Age (1200 BC to 600 AD), Roman Britain (43 AD to 410 AD), Viking and Anglo-Saxons (430 to 1066), Norman Britain (1066 to 1154), Middle Ages (19 1154 to 22 1485), Tudors (1487 to 1603), Civil War and Revolution ( March 1603 to 1714), Empire and Sea Power (September 1715 – 1835), Victorian Britain (1837 to 1901) and 2oth Century wars (1900 to 1945).
The Paleolithic Period (The History of Britain)
This period is also called an old stone age. Main, source of income was the reliance of people reliance on stone making tools. Hominids were reciting there in West Sussex in southern England. Famous Box grove Quarry was built during that age. Now, this is the ancient and famous archeological site in England. First-ever stone made tools were built by the British Isles during old stone age.
Hominids modified into modern humans around 10,000 to 4,500 BC. Hominoids were the last seen there in the British Isles. The British Isles were connected to Europe through Dogger land (a territory). It was the age of hunter-gatherers. Their hunting tools were small and sharp known as microliths.
Neolithic and Bronze Age
The Neolithic age means the modern stone age. It occurred in the British Isles around 4,000 to 2,500 BCE. The man first time abandoned hunting and adopted agriculture. It occurred at the place of east countries including Jordan, Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. Natufian culture of the Levant displayed the signs of breaking from haunting. At early stages, Man started to harvest crop which later developed in domestication and crop farming. Archaeologists believed that they increased the sources to agriculture through the increase of population. This agricultural development spread from Levant to Greece, Turkey and then to the British Isles. For agriculture, the Neolithic agriculturalists deforested the land in the British Isles. The houses also developed throughout this period, they produced rectangular wooden houses. Such houses had been extinct due to rare archaeological record. A large number of megalithic tombs were identified by archaeologists. The Neolithic people constructed these long timber resemblance tombs to house the dead bodies of their ancestors. Neolithic people used larger lithic tools such as axes with wooden handles. They grew barley and wheat and used it as their food.
The bronze age occurred when man modified his tools through copper and bronze. It spanned around 1700 years ranging from (2500 to 800 BC). Western Europe emerged the ceremonial practices during this age. The Beaker culture flourished at Netherlands, Central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Along with the beaker pottery Seahegen (Holm I) monument was also built.
The British and Irish society enjoyed transformation during Neolithic and bronze age.
Iron Age (The History of Britain)
When iron (a metal) was introduced in tool-making technology, it marked iron age. Iron age was characterized by many new innovations. According to Tacitus, (a Roman Historian) the migrations occurred from Wales to Iberian, Caledonians to German and Britannia to Gaulish. Due to this, the people of Celtic culture were living in the British at that time. People of different beliefs lived there. A group worshipped masculine god, while the other worshipped goddess. Trade of iron tools as sword and daggers also flourished in this period. Iron was also used for weapons and ornamentation. Some believed that Celtic languages were spoken while others disagree. Iron trade helped them in earning of money.
The construction style of the Iron age
Roman Britain period (The History of Britain)
Julius Caser invaded the British Isles twice in 55 and 54 BC. In his first invasion, he conquered only two regions till the landing of the coast king. In his second invasion, he reached inland and forced Cassivellaunus to surrender. He did it with the assistance of five legions,2,000 cavalries, and 628 ships. They killed hundreds of British. Southern British too became the part of Roman in 43 AD. When Nero (last Roman emperor) was assassinated the charge was taken by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. He was the governor of Rome and the British was extended to North. Paulinus cleared the last thorn of his way the, last Druids. He conquered the Menai strait in 60 AD. The British revolted in east Anglia. But this proved to be further suppression for the British. Paulinus enlarged the Roman empire to south Wales. Later, it was enlarged to north Wales, Scotland and northern Britain in 77 and 83 AD. This has greatly increased the area of Britain. Roman was attacked by the British. They spread the massacre and murdered about 100,000 and 250,000 people. Finally, the British were successful in capturing Roman.
Anglo Saxon period (The History of Britain)
In 5th century, Britain experienced the invasion by German people (Saxons). After a war with Britain, Anglo- Saxon emperor became the part of British states. Heptarchy was seven Anglo Saxon kingdoms that emerged in 600. Northern European (Vikings) conquered England in 9th century. Alfred became the prime figure for unifying England in 10th century. Canute the Great (the king of Denmark) conquered England. But till 1066, the power was again shifted to Edward the Confessor (Anglo Saxon king).
The Duke of Normandy (France) claimed his right on England’s throne in 1066. He invaded in England where Anglo Saxons were ruling. William declared himself a king. He gave the royal seats to the upper class of Normans. Various small groups of Normans army move to various villages. Normans destroyed many villages, also killed a lot of people. Normans was defeated by Saxons. Many Saxons left the area. Other landlords of Saxons prefer to live under the kingship of William. Later William gave many lands to the ancient Normans. Many wars followed, leading to the Hundred Year war. This war resulted in the economic crisis of France. At the end of war France conquered the England. William defeated Harold II in the battle of Hastings. He built various castles there. He also ordered a census in England presented in Domesday book. Many areas of land were captured from England. William distributed the captured areas among the soldiers of his army. Large areas of land are kept by William. He has also done charity work by distributing land to various renowned churches of that era. He put the base of feudalist society in England. Feudalism based on the concept of economic prosperity. Some lands were purchased from William. William work was based on the idea that “Every man had lord, and every lord has land”. This was the idea that attach William to common man of his country. William returned all the land; he has captured during the war. Survey team was made for distribution of land to their original owners. Because he wanted to uplift the economy of England. After the death of William, his son became his successor.
In 14th century, Plantagenet dynasties were formed by Henry II. When Geoffrey (the father of Henry II) married Empress Matilda in order to rule over England and Normans. Henry II did it in through his father’s sacrifice. Monarch houses were found at Lanchester and Plantagenet.
This period lasted from 1485 – 1602. Tudor refers to noble family at Wales which ruled in this period. On 22nd August in 1485, Henry Tudor (VII) conquered Westminster Abbey. He defeated Richard III at battle of Bosworth. In 1503, James IV married Margaret (daughter of Henry VII). In 1509, the throne was ascended to Henry VIII. In 1547, King Henry VIII’s death shifted crown to his son Edward VI. Later, it was sent to Mary I (daughter of Henry VIII). She became the first monarch lady. She promoted her father’s belief of Roman Catholics. In 1558, Mary died ascending the throne to Elizabeth I.
It was the time, when British and Scotland enjoyed rule by Stuart (Stewart) dynasty. In 1603, Scotland, England and Ireland were ruled by a monarch named James VI. In 1604, the 20 years’ war in Spain ended. The war between Spain and England started in 1624. This followed the death of James I in 1625. Charles, I took over the charge. Captain John Powell claimed Barbados as British Island. There was a three years’ war with France. In 1642, the civil war started. This war resulted in the execution of Charles I to London. Around 1560, Cromwell conquered Ireland and Scotland. In 156os, Charles II restored monarchy. In these years, a large number of destructions occurred. These include great fire of London and great Plague. These destroyed cities and killed 100,000 people. The marriage between Mary Stuart (the niece of Charles II) and William of Orange (grandson of Charles II) occurred in 1677. William claimed the throne after it. The death of Charles II ascended the throne to James II in 1685.
Further the glorious revolution took place in 1688. James II and James VII were dethroned by Mary II and William III of Orange. This led to bloodless revolution. In addition to it, Treaty of Union (merging England and Scotland as one kingdom), The Scottish Enlightment and First British Empire are also distinctive phenomes of this period.
Empire and Sea Power
This period occurred during 1714- 1837. The end of monarchy after Queen Anne, made Elector of Hanover a king in 1702. There was increase in political and social power due to various settlement acts. There was a raise not only in industrial economy, demographic growth but also Population. The British population doubled just in a century. It became the empire covering economy led to overseas settlements. Naval dominance and sea power also affected military and international dimensions. The History of Britain
Britain participated in different wars during this period. Britain opposed France in Austrian Succession war. In triumphed Seven Year war they stood with Spain against France. They lost the American war of independence. All these factors contributed to have a huge impact on their land and sea power.
Victorians Britain (1837 – 1901)
The Victorian age is considered the golden era across the world. It enjoyed industrial revolution along with expansion of cities and towns. The imposition of higher taxes created hindrance in job creations and business. Many medical initiatives were taken by the government. Certain parliamentary reforms were introduced. Although the right to woman was not given.
It was called age of reason and the age of Enlightenment (1685 to 1815). It spread not only in Britain and France but throughout Europe. Many discoveries and innovations related to Science and Art were made. Many wars, laws and revolutions were challenged. Its early developmental years range from 1685 to 1730. Many people like Rene Descartes and Gallio galilee played role in Scientific and philosophical revolutions. John Locke wrote his essay to emphasize human understanding. The gist of essay was human attain success through experience and understanding. This trend of rational thinking emerged not only in British but also at France, Swiss, German and America.
The period of 1730 to 1780 is considered as high enlightenment period. The concept of demystification of nature and natural object was promoted. The prominent philosophers in this task include Rousseau, Buffon, Voltaire, Denis Diderot and Montesquieu. Declaration of independence by Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine farmed American revolution in 1776. Religious beliefs were also strengthened during this period. Pierre Bayle presented the idea of separation of Church from state. Christians and materialists strengthened their beliefs.
The French revolution in 1789 played a significant role in developing rational thinking. Marry Wollstonecraft inspired Haitian war of independence and radical racialists. Later, this enlightenment led to the age of romanticism in 19th century. The History of Britain
The second war of Coalition
Much of the land area of French and Dutch were overtaken by Britain, in the war of coalition. Thousands of war troops have died of tropical diseases. Aimen treaty was signed to the war.
The Treaty of Amiens ended in 1802. This leads to a new war between England and France. At that time Napoléon Bonaparte was the powerful king of France.
The American war of independence against the British
In 1764, the dispute on taxation between British and American colonies reflected Wilkes’s thoughts about freedom. Wilkes was PM in George III parliament. He was also the head of the newspaper, The North Briton. When George III signed a peace agreement with France in 1763. He criticized George III for not trusting the parliament. From 1700 to 1770 there was an increase in American colonies from 200,000 to 2500000.
This conflict resulted in Boston tea party event. In 1773, a group of colonists threw a shipload of tea. Because they were not in favor of paying tax. British closed the port which forced the American to stop the access of British goods in American port. This resulted in war which lasted from 1775 until 1783. The British had to face a disastrous defeat. Only Canada remained under British empire.
Development in Engineering and Industry
London was having a monopoly in Engineering and industry from 1850-90. Industrial revolutions started in German and America in the 1890s. At that time British were leading the world in trading.
The 19th century (The History of Britain)
It became the world shop of the year after the industrial revolution. Queen Victoria was ruling Britain from 1837, and died in 1901. She was considered as one of the remarkable Queen of the world. Son of Queen Victoria, Edward 7, has ruled Britain until 1910.
World war 1 (The History of Britain)
George 5 became the successor of Edward in 1910. Britain entered war era against German in 2014, which was termed as World war 1. Britain economy suffered a lot from this war, as they have bought large number of war weapons from America. Millions of people died during this war. World war 1 started in 1914 and lasts till 1919. The war ended in favor of Britain, as America has also turned against German. The world war I lasted from 1902 to 1918. The Britain participated in the war against Germany. I million Britain’s were killed till 1918. At last, German surrendered. George VI ruled Britain in 1936 after his brother George V. Elizabeth II became the queen in 1952. Winston Churchill held the foundation of welfare state in Britain. He became the prime minster of United Kingdom in 1940 to 45.
Irish independence war (The History of Britain)
Britain was ruling over Irish from the past many decades. In 1919 Irish started a war against Britain. The irish-Britain war continued for three years. Irish defeated Britain in 1922. This led towards the establishment of an Irish free state. Irish formed their own central government.
The liberal party has ruled over Britain, under the leadership of various Prime ministers. The liberal party moves to its decline in 1922. Labor party came into being under the leadership of Ramsay Macdonald in 1922.
George V was succeeded by his son Edward 7 in 1933. Edward 7 failed to deal with state affairs. The main reason behind that he wanted to marry a divorced woman of Britain. He left the leadership in 1936. George 6 the brother of Edward 7, holds the leadership in 1936.
World war 2 (The History of Britain)
A German chancellor tried to extend German towards central Europe. This leads to world war 2 in 1939. As the war started German drop bombs on London, which cause the destruction of thousands of buildings of London. All the war weapons, including bombs, was supplied by America. German was defeated in 1944, which ends the world war 1. Millions of Britons were killed by Germans. British economy had face economic and military crisis, after world war 2. British took some years to overcome these crises.
Labor party defeated Winston Churchill in the elections of 1945. Clement Attlee served as Britain Prime minister till 1951. Attlee rendered great services to the health department. He started many health programs in society. The main objective of these initiatives was to provide free health facilities to the lower class.
In 1952 Elizabeth 2 became the Queen of Britain. She was the daughter of George 6. Winston Churchill has served as ruler along with Elizabeth till 1955.
Sir Anthony Eden served as prime minister in 1955. He worked mainly for the Suez crisis. Anthony Eden intended to nationalize the Suez Canal but failed. Suez Canal was nationalized by Egypt.
One of the labor politicians, Harold Wilson holds the leadership in 1964. His struggles are attributed in bringing social reforms in Britain society. The main moral drawback of British society was Homosexuality. Harold banned all types of activities. Then, in 1973 the Conservative party came to power in 1979. Margaret Thatcher was elected as first-ever women prime minister of Britain.
The Falkland Islands were disputed between Britain and Argentina. Under the order of Margaret Thatcher, the Falkland war was started. This initiative became the reason of her popularity as Prime Minister. British troops snatched the Falkland Islands from Argentina. She served Britain till 1990.
The cold war (The History of Britain)
Many countries participated in the Cold war including Britain, America, Korea, Soviet Union etc. Cold war has affected Britain in the late 20th century. In
1997 Tony Blair was elected as Britain prime minister. His most prominent work was the “Third-way program”. Tony left the office in 2007, giving powers to Gordon Brown.
David Cermon holds the office of prime minister in 2010. He resigned from his office in 2016. The second women Prime Minister of Britain, Theresa May was elected in 2016.
In the elections of 2019 Boris Johnson was elected as Prime Minister. He belongs to the conservative party. Boris is working for the Brexit policy. Right after the appointment of Boris Johnson, COVID-19 hit Britain.
British President Boris Johnson
While Britain is locked down. The economy has suffered a lot due to these crises. All the industrial and business sectors are shut down. The stock market is falling gradually due to this pandemic disease.