For almost 30 centuries – since its unification around 3100 BC on his conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 BC BC – ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean. From the great pyramids of the Old Kingdom to the military conquests of the New Kingdom, Egypt’s majesty has long been under the spell of archaeologists and historians and has created a living area of research: Egyptology. The main sources of information about ancient Egypt are the many monuments, objects and artifacts that have been recovered from archaeological sites and covered with hieroglyphs that have only recently been deciphered. The picture that emerges shows a culture that is unparalleled in the beauty of its art, the realization of its architecture or the wealth of its religious traditions.
Predynastic Period (c. 5000-3100 B.C.)
Only a few written records or artifacts were found from the pre-dynastic period, which included at least 2,000 years of gradual development of the Egyptian civilization.
Facts about Egypt
During Akhenaten’s reign, his wife Nefertiti played an important political and religious role in the monotheistic cult of the sun god Aton. Images and sculptures by Nefertiti show her famous beauty and role as a living goddess of fertility. Neolithic (Late Stone Age) communities in northeast Africa exchanged the hunt for agriculture and made early advances that paved the way for the later development of Egyptian handicrafts, technology, politics, and religion (including a great awe of the dead and possibly one Belief in life after death). Around 3400 BC 500 BC Two separate kingdoms were established near the Fertile Crescent, an area home to some of the oldest civilizations in the world: the Red Land in the north, which lies in the Nile Delta and stretches along the Nile, perhaps to Atfih ; and the White Country in the south, which stretches from Atfih to Gebel es-Silsila. A southern king, Scorpion, made the first attempts to conquer the northern kingdom around 3200 BC. To conquer Chr. A century later, King Menes conquered the north and united the country to become the first king of the first dynasty.
Archaic (Early Dynastic) Period (c. 3100-2686 B.C.) (Egypt history)
King Menes founded the capital of ancient Egypt in White Walls (later known as Memphis) in the north near the tip of the Nile Delta. The capital would become a large metropolis that ruled Egyptian society during the Old Empire. In the archaic period, the foundations of Egyptian society developed, including the all-important ideology of royalty. For the ancient Egyptians, the king was a god-like being who was closely identified with the almighty god Horus. The earliest known hieroglyphic script also dates from this period.In the archaic period, as in all other periods, most of the ancient Egyptians were farmers living in small villages, and agriculture (mainly wheat and barley) formed the economic base of the Egyptian state. The annual flooding of the great Nile provided the necessary irrigation and fertilization every year; Farmers sowed the wheat after the flooding subsided and harvested it before the high temperature and drought season returned.
Old Kingdom: Age of the Pyramid Builders (c. 2686-2181 B.C.)(Egypt history)
The Old Kingdom began with the third dynasty of the pharaohs. Around 2630 BC The king Djoser of the third dynasty asked the architect, priest and healer Imhotep to design a grave monument for him. The result was the first large stone building in the world, the step pyramid in Saqqara near Memphis. The Egyptian pyramid building reached its peak with the construction of the Great Pyramid in Giza on the outskirts of Cairo. The pyramid was built for Khufu (or Cheops in Greek) from 2589 to 2566 BC. BC ruled. Later, classical historians called it one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus estimated that the construction of 100.00 men took 20 years. Two more pyramids were built in Giza for Khufu’s successor Khafra (2558-2532 BC) and Menkaura (2532-2503 BC). During the third and fourth dynasties, Egypt experienced a golden age of peace and prosperity. The pharaohs had absolute power and provided a stable central government; The kingdom was not exposed to any serious foreign threats. and successful military campaigns in foreign countries such as Nubia and Libya contributed to its considerable economic prosperity. During the fifth and sixth dynasties, the king’s wealth was steadily exhausted, partly due to the enormous cost of building the pyramid, and his absolute power stalled given the growing influence of the nobility and priesthood that grew up around him Sun god Ra (Re). After the death of King Pepy II. The sixth dynasty, who ruled for 94 years, ended the time of the Old Kingdom in chaos.
First Intermediate Period of Egypt history(c. 2181-2055 B.C.)
After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, the seventh and eighth dynasties consisted of a rapid succession of rulers in Memphis until the central authority changed around 2160 BC. It completely dissolved and led to a civil war between the provincial governors. This chaotic situation was exacerbated by Bedouin invasions and accompanied by famine and disease. Two different kingdoms emerged from this era of conflict: a series of 17 rulers (Dynasties nine and 10), based in Heracleopolis, ruled central Egypt between Memphis and Thebes, while another ruling family emerged in Thebes to challenge the power of the Heracleopolitan. Around 2055 BC The Theban prince Mentuhotep succeeded in overthrowing Heracleopolis and reuniting Egypt, starting with the 11th dynasty and ending the first period.
Middle Kingdom: 12th Dynasty (c. 2055-1786 B.C.)
After the last ruler of the 11th dynasty, Mentuhotep IV, was murdered, the throne passed to his vizier or prime minister, who became King Amenemhet I, founder of the 12th dynasty. A newcapital was founded in It-Towy, south of Memphis, while Thebes remained a major religious center. During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt flourished again as in the Old Kingdom. The kings of the 12th dynasty ensured the smooth running of their lineage by making each successor a co-regent, a custom that started with Amenemhet I. The Middle Kingdom had an aggressive foreign policy, colonized Nubia (with its rich supply of gold, ebony, ivory and other resources) and fended off the Bedouins who had infiltrated Egypt in the first period. The kingdom also established diplomatic and trade ties with Syria, Palestine and other countries. Construction projects including military forts and mining quarries carried out; and returned to pyramid building in the tradition of the Old Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom reached its peak under Amenemhet III (1842-1797 BC); Its decline began under Amenenhet IV (1798-1790 BC) and continued under his sister and regent, Queen Sobekneferu (1789-1786 BC), the first confirmed ruler of Egypt and the last ruler of the 12th Dynasty was.
Second Intermediate Period Egypt history
(c. 1786-1567 B.C.) The 13th dynasty marked the beginning of another troubled period in Egyptian history when a quick succession of kings could not consolidate power. As a result, Egypt was divided into several spheres of influence in the second period. The official royal court and seat of government was moved to Thebes, while a rival dynasty (the 14th), which concentrated on the city of Xois in the Nile Delta, appears to have existed at the same time as the 13th. Around 1650 BC A number of foreign rulers known as Hyksos took advantage of Egypt’s instability to take control. The Hyksos rulers of the 15th dynasty inherited and continued many of the existing Egyptian traditions in government and culture. They ruled simultaneously with the line of native Theban rulers of the 17th dynasty, who remained in control of most of southern Egypt, even though they had to pay taxes to the Hyksos. (There are various assumptions that the 16th dynasty was the Theban or Hyksos rulers.) Eventually there were conflicts between the two groups, and the Thebans led around 1570 BC.
New Kingdom of Egypt history (c. 1567-1085 B.C.)
Egypt was reunited under Ahmose I, the first king of the 18th dynasty. During the 18th dynasty, Egypt regained control of Nubia and began military campaigns in Palestine, clashing with other powers in the region such as the Allies and the Hittites. The country founded the first great empire in the world, which stretched from Nubia to the Euphrates in Asia. In addition to powerful kings such as Amenophis I (1546-1526 BC), Thutmosis I (1525-1512 BC) and Amenophis III. (1417-1379 BC) was the New Kingdom for the role of royal women such as Queen Hatshepsut (1503-1482 BC), who ruled as regent for her young stepson (he later became Thutmose III, Egypt’s greatest military hero ), but rose to exercise all the powers of a pharaoh. The controversial Amenophis IV (ca. 1379-1362) from the late 18th dynasty undertook a religious revolution, dissolved the priesthoods dedicated to Amon-Re (a combination of the local Theban god Amon and the sun god Re) and forced the exclusive worship of another sun god, Aton. He changed his name to Akhenaten (“Servant of Aton”) and built a new capital in CentralEgypt called Akhenaten, which later became known as Amarna. After Akhenaten’s death, the capital returned to Thebes and the Egyptians worshiped a multitude of gods. In the 19th and 20th dynasties, known as the Ramessid period (for the line of kings called Ramses), the weakened Egyptian empire was restored and impressive buildings were built, including large temples and cities. According to the biblical chronology, the exodus of Moses and the Israelites from Egypt may have occurred during the reign of Ramses II (1304-1237 BC). All rulers of the New Kingdom (except Akhenaten) were buried in deep rock tombs (no pyramids) in the Valley of the Kings, a burial site on the west bank of the Nile opposite Thebes. Most of them were raided and destroyed, with the exception of the tomb and treasure of Tutankhamun (around 1361-1352 BC), which was discovered largely intact in 1922. The magnificent mortuary temple of the last great king of the 20th dynasty, Ramses III (approx. 1187-1156 BC) was also relatively well preserved and showed the prosperity that Egypt still enjoyed during his reign. The kings who followed Ramses III were less successful: Egypt permanently lost its provinces in Palestine and Syria and suffered from foreign invasions (especially by the Libyans) while its wealth was steadily but inevitably exhausted.Egypt history
Third Intermediate Period (c. 1085-664 B.C.)
Over the next 400 years – known as the third interim – there have been major changes in Egyptian politics, society, and culture. The centralized government under the pharaohs of the 21st dynasty made way for the revival of local officials, while foreigners from Libya and Nubia seized power and had a lasting impact on the Egyptian population. The 22nd dynasty began around 945 BC. with King Sheshonq, a descendant of the Libyans who invaded and settled in Egypt during the late 20th dynasty. Many local rulers were practically autonomous during this period, and Dynasties 23-24 are poorly documented. In the 8th century BC BC Nubian pharaohs, starting with Shabako, ruler of the Nubian kingdom of Kush, founded their own dynasty – the 25th – in Thebes. Under Cushite rule, Egypt collided with the growing Assyrian empire. 671 BC The Assyrian ruler Esarhaddon sold the Cushite king Taharka from Memphis and destroyed the city. Then he appointed his own rulers from local governors and officials who were loyal to the Assyrians. One of them, Necho von Sais, ruled briefly as the first king of the 26th dynasty before he was killed in a last, unsuccessful power struggle by the Cushite leader Tanuatamun. From the Late Period to Alexander’s Conquest (c.664-332 B.C.) Beginning with Necho’s son Psammetichus, the string dynasty ruled a reunited Egypt for less than two centuries. 525 BC BC defeated Cambyses, king of Persia, Psammetichus III, the last Saitian king, at the Battle of Pelusium, and Egypt became part of the Persian Empire. Persian rulers such as Darius (522-485 BC) ruled the country largely under the same conditions as indigenous Egyptian kings: Darius supported the religious cults of Egypt and undertook the construction and restoration of its temples. The tyrannical rule of Xerxes (486-465 BC) led to increased uprisings among him and his successors. “One of the rebellions was a victory in 404 BC.” “A commemorative period for the independence of all indigenous peoples in BritishColumbia and Egypt (28-30 dynasty).” “In the middle of the fourth century BC, the Persians again attacked Egypt and were resurrected in 343 BC.” Your empire under Ataxerxes III. Barely a decade later, 332 BC BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeated the armies of the Persian Empire and conquered Egypt. After Alexander’s death, Egypt was ruled by a number of Macedonian kings, from Alexander General Ptolemy to his descendants. The last ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt – the legendary Cleopatra VII – handed over Egypt in 31 BC. The armies of Octavian (later Augustus). Six centuries of Roman rule followed, in which Christianity became the official religion of Rome and the provinces of the Roman Empire (including Egypt). The conquest of Egypt by the Arabs in the 7th century AD and the introduction of Islam would remove the last external aspects of the ancient Egyptian culture and drive the country towards its modern incarnation.
From the Late Period to Alexander’s Conquest (c.664-332 B.C.)
Beginning with Necho’s son Psammetichus, the string dynasty ruled a reunited Egypt for less than two centuries. 525 BC BC defeated Cambyses, king of Persia, Psammetichus III, the last Saitian king, at the Battle of Pelusium, and Egypt became part of the Persian Empire. Persian rulers like Darius (522-485 BC) ruled the country largely under the same conditions as indigenous Egyptian kings: Darius supported the religious cults of Egypt and undertook the construction and restoration of its temples. The tyrannical rule of Xerxes (486-465 BC) led to increased uprisings among him and his successors. One of these rebellions triumphed in 404 BC. “And began the last period of Egypt under local rulers (28-30 dynasty).” Mid 4th century BC The Persians attacked Egypt again and revived 343 BC. Your empire under Ataxerxes III. Barely a decade later, 332 BC BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeated the armies of the Persian Empire and conquered Egypt. After Alexander’s death, Egypt was ruled by a number of Macedonian kings, from Alexander General Ptolemy to his descendants. The last ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt – the legendary Cleopatra VII – handed over Egypt in 31 BC. The armies of Octavian (later Augustus). Six centuries of Roman rule followed, in which Christianity became the official religion of Rome and the provinces of the Roman Empire (including Egypt). The conquest of Egypt by the Arabs in the 7th century AD and the introduction of Islam would remove the last external aspects of the ancient Egyptian culture and drive the country towards its modern incarnation.